Case report geochemical-microscopical characterization of the deterioration of stone surfaces in the cloister of Santa Maria in Vado (Ferrara, Italy)
Marrocchino E, Telloli C, Leis M, Vaccaro C.
Paper International Journal with referee
Santa Maria in Vado is a monument in the rich artistic heritage of the city of Ferrara (north of Italy). In this paper we want to investigate the state of conservation of tombstones, cloister and the entrance to the basilica, in order to keep them in the best possible state for the future generations. From the chemical characterization, the state of conservation was determined focusing on the biodeteriogenic and non-biodeteriogenic factors, which determine a series of unwanted changes in the physical, mechanical and above all aesthetic properties of the material, often closely connected with the environment and conservation conditions. On the macroscopic observation, the state of conservation of the tombstones appeared to be very deteriorated through aesthetic and structural damage. In detail, the stereo microscope observation of samples collected from the tombstones show the presence of efflorescence probably caused by the abundant of water that bring the salts present inside the rock into solution. Relating the columns, μ-XRF analysis confirm the carbonate composition of samples and presence of iron and sulfur. Finally, SEM observation highlighted the presence of black crust on arch samples and the presence of pollen on the black crust and spheroidal particles probably related to atmospheric pollution